Gynecologic cancers are experiencing an increase while the cancer is the second disease leading to death in the world. It is recommended to consult and test obstetrics and gynecology specialists once a year to help protect against gynaecological cancers, which are seen in cervical, uterus, ovarian, vaginal, vulva and tube cancers. There is no common cause for gynecologic cancers. The risk factors vary according to cancer types.
Cervical cancer: Obesity, a history of diabetes, late menopause age, infertility, the use of estrogen alone without progesterone increases the risk.
Ovarian cancer: No apparent cause was detected. However, environmental and genetic factors such as age, familial factors such as diet with high animal fat, and use of powder are considered to be effective in ovarian cancer. For example, a lifelong woman’s risk of developing ovarian cancer is 1.4 per cent, while first-degree relative ovarian cancer rises to 7 percent in women with two first-degree relatives in the Olanda.
What are the symptoms?
The symptoms of gynecologic cancers differ according to the organ being maintained. The symptom of cervical cancer is a vaginal hemorrhage in the style of staining after sexual intercourse, an increase in the amount or duration of menstruation, which appears as a brown vaginal discharge. Waist and pubic pain in advanced stages, difficulty in urinating or leg edema can be seen. Cervical cancer is a cancer that gives an early onset, premenopausal or during the menopause the symptoms of abnormal bleeding. Ovarian cancer is so low that it gives a late finding and its findings are not specific. Abdominal swelling, pain, indigestion, increase around the abdomen, abnormal vaginal bleeding are the most common symptoms. Due to its late findings, 70 percent of ovarian cancer cases are diagnosed in stage 3 and 4. The most common manifestations of vulva cancer are chronic itching, mass, pain, bleeding and ulcers that are addressed in vulva.
Gynecologic cancers can lead to death!
Gynecologic cancers in general, mortality rates vary depending on the stage of the disease, the histologic type and degree, the age of the patient’s general condition, and the surgery performed. It is emphasized that the cancer with the worst life span has ovarian carcinoma due to its late findings. The average life expectancy after diagnosis is 35 percent. The life expectancy is better than ovarian cancer, as cervical cancer is given earlier symptoms. The life expectancy rates for all phases are as follows: Stage I is 75 percent, stage II is 60 percent, the stage is 30 percent and 10 percent for stage 4. The mean life expectancy of cervical cancer is around 80 percent in the early diagnosis of Pap smear method. The stage is 90 percent, stage 2 is 65 percent, and stage 4 is 15 percent.
Methods used in diagnosis
Thanks to the methods developed for the early diagnosis of gynecologic cancers, the success rate in the treatment is also increasing. Gynecology cancer is considered to be the cancer type of cervical cancer, which has increased most of the early diagnosis in recent years. This cancer is known in the early period of cellular changes with a screening method of cytological examinations of the cells of the uterus, called Pap smear test, in the future with potential cancer. With the destruction of these lesions, a pronounced decrease in cervical cancer was detected. Such that a single negative Pap smear test reduces the risk of cervical cancer by 45 percent. Lifetime nine negative Pap smear tests reduce this risk by 99 percent. Pap smear test, the most effective screening method for cervical cancer, is recommended once a year for every woman with sexual activity over the age of 18.
Early diagnosis of cervical and ovarian cancer
The screening methods used in gynecologic cancers are not very effective in cervical cancer. The diagnosis of cervical cancer is often diagnosed as early as possible. However, it is possible to scan for fat, diabetic, estrogen-treated people with high risk. Vaginal sonography, endometrial biopsy and office hysteroscopy are available for screening. If the thickness of the intrauterine layer measured with vaginal sonography is below 4 millimeter, the risk of uterine cancer is very low. An effective early diagnosis and screening method for ovarian cancer is the most lethal among all gynecologic cancers. The annual routine examination is not enough for early diagnosis. For the first time in the 1980s, 80 percent of ovarian cancer can be identified by the Ca-125 tumor marker called surface antigen. However, in the pre-menopause period, Ca-125 values may rise due to many causes such as pregnancy, endometriosis, benign ovarian cysts, which are described as the presence of uterine internal tissue in non-uterine regions. In addition, in 50 percent of early ovarian cancers, Ca-125 is normally available. With transvaginal sonography and Doppler ultrasound, the use of Ca-125 increases the quality of the screening, but is not sufficient for routine examination.
Treatment of gynecologic cancers
Success in the treatment of gynecologic cancers differs according to the stages of the disease. It is noted that the effective treatment is usually surgical. Surgery is performed in all phases of ovarian cancer. Usually, these cases are presented in the late period and the patient is admitted to the advanced stage. Complete surgical staging should be performed to patients and the tumor mass should be reduced to a minimum level. Surgical staging means not only the intake of the uterus and the ovaries, but the cleaning of the areas in which the cancer has been investigated and disseminated in the entire abdomen. Thus, the patient receives maximum benefit from chemotherapy. Usually the first post of ovarian cancer is performed after chemotherapy and again an operation called “Second view Surgery”. As a result of this surgery, chemotherapy is given again if necessary. When surgery is performed in the early stages of cervical cancer, radiation therapy in advanced phases forms the basic treatment option. In cervical cancer, surgery is the first treatment option. It can then be administered radiotherapy and chemotherapy if necessary. Treatment and follow-up should be performed multidisciplinary in gynecologic cancer patients. Multiple treatments can be used in combination with the recurrence of diseases.
Suggestions for protection
Because the causes of gynecological cancers are very different, it is necessary to take into consideration many factors in the prevention. Protection from sexually transmitted diseases, especially human papilloma virus (HPV) infection to protect against cervical cancer, comes to the fore. In women using birth control pill in reproductive age, it is known that the uterus and ovarian cancers have decreased significantly in the incidence of cancer. Smoking is recommended to be left because the use of cigarettes also increases the risk of cervical cancer.
Cervical cancer: Since early diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer is possible, Pap smear test should be performed even if there is not a pronounced complaint every year. Vaccine studies have been ongoing for HPV infections in recent years. However, it is not yet routine use.
Uterine cancer: To prevent excess weight gain, to avoid unrequited estrogen and to have the potential for cancer, uterine diseases need to be treated appropriately.
Ovarian cancer: The use of contraceptive pills and protective interventions in the presence of ovarian cancer in the family can be proposed. So the ovary can be taken. However, this may not always eliminate ovarian cancer. Prevention of gynecologic cancers is the best routine with the removal of annual examinations without neglect